• Shot Peening Machines
The shot peening is a cold working process in which the surface of a part is bombarded with small spherical media called shot. Each piece of shot striking the material acts as a tiny peening hammer, imparting to the surface a small indentation of dimple. In order for the dimple to be created, the surface fibers or the material must be yielded in tension. Below the surface, the fibers try to restore the surface to its original shape, thereby producing below the dimple, a hemisphere of cold-worked material highly stressed in compression. Overlapping dimples develop an even layer of metal in residual compressive stress. It is well known that cracks will not initiate or propagate in a compressively stressed zone since nearly all fatigue and stress corrosion failures originate at the surface of a part, compressive stresses induced by shot peening provide considerable increases in part life. The maximum compressive residual stress produced at or under the surface of a part, by shot peening is at least as great as half the yield strength of the being peened. Many materials will also increase in surface hardness due to the cold working effect of shot peening.
Benefits obtained by shot peening are the result of the effect of the compressive stress and the cold working induced. Compressive stresses are beneficial in increasing resistance to fatigue failures, corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen assisted cracking, fretting, galling and erosion caused by cavitation. Benefits obtained due to cold working include work hardening, intergranular corrosion resistance, surface texturing, closing of porosity and testing the bond of coatings. Both compressive stresses and cold working effects are used in the application of shot peening in forming metal parts.